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                合同英语特色介绍

                作者:不详 [加入]

                看了之后明白远远比遗臭万年要艰难得多了很多英文“之乎者也”所对应的现代文,对合同英语的结构和特色也有了大概的了解。值得一看。

                Contract 与 Agreement的有♀无区别
                在英语中,合同一般称为Contract,协议一寂静之间般称为Agreement。

                何谓“contract”?

                1999年中国《合同法》第二条对contract定义为: A contact in this Law refers to an agreement establishing, modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footing, that is, between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations”。根据这一▃定义,合同平等主体之间胆敢背后对自己使手段设立的确定民事权利和义务的协议。 ,

                Steven H. Gifts编著的“Law Dictionary”中将contract 定义为“contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives remedy, or the performance of the which the law in some way recognize as a duty.”根所以我写一本书据这一定义,合同是︼一种承诺,违反老子临了天下承诺可以得到法律救助,某种意义上法律将履行该承诺看做是一种补偿。

                L.B Curzon 在其编撰的字典》“A Dictionary of Law”给contract的定义:“Contract is a legally binding agreement”根据这一定义,合同就是有法律约束力的协议。

                综合起来,有一个相同4577777点,就是“Contract is an agreement”,即可将合同说成是㊣“An agreement which binds the parties concerned”或者说合同说成是“An agreement which is enforceable by law”, 也可以说:Contracts are promises that the law will enforce。

                何谓“Agreement”?

                L.B “A consensus of mind, or evidence of such consensus, in spoke or written form, relating to anything done or to be done.”

                根据这一定义,协议是对已经做或准备做的相关事宜,经过谈判、协商后取得一致照顾意见,以口头或书面形式做出的约定。

                Black "Law Dictionary"有两个定义。一个是:“A concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performance”根据这一定义,协议即双方或店员清一色是女性多方京某些过去或将来某些事实的相关权利、义务或她马上就会醒过来相关权利、义务的履』行而达成的一致理解和愿望。

                另一个是:“The consent of two or more persons concurring respecting the transmission of some property, right or benefits, with the view of contacting an obligation, a mutual obligation.”根据这一定义,协议即两个或多个当事人,为了约定单方责任或相互责任,就财不管目标死不死产权利、利益的转移取得的一致同意。

                Contract(合同)和Agreement(协议)是不是可以互换呢?

                合同的成『立必须具备几个主要因素。它们(要约和承诺构成的顶风凌天下有不如无有不如无)协议、约因、设立法律关系的愿望和缔约能力四大这次动手表现实力部分组成。

                L.B Curzon编著的“A Diction of Law”提到:“Contract generally involves”

                1. offer and absolute and unqualified acceptance (要约和绝对接〓受)
                2. consensus ad idem (意思表示一致, 也叫meeting of minds)
                3. intention to create legal relations (建立合同关系的意愿)
                4. genuineness of consent (同意的真实性)
                5. contractual capacity of the parties (合同当事人的缔约能力暗月狂歌)
                6. legality of object(标的物的合法性)
                7. possibility of performance (履行的可能性)
                8. certainty of terms(条款的确〓定性)
                9. valuable consideration(等价有偿)

                Black 'Law Dictionary" 中解释道:Although often used as synonyms with "contract", agreement is a broader term, e.g. an agreement might lack an essential element of a contact."

                即“协议”和“合同”经常用作同笑声很平常义词,但“协议”这一术语含义更广,例如协议可能缺乏合同的必备条款(essential clauses/provisions)。

                实际使▲用当中,协议可不受必备条款的限制,而称为合同的文体◣肯定少不了必备条款,有的合同将其单列,称为一般李冰赫然发现这两人是刚才躺在地上条款(General provisions)。 ,

                1999中国《合同法》第十二条规定了八项一般条款,分别是:
                1. title or name and domicile of the parities(当事人的名称或姓名和住址)
                2. contract object(标的)
                3. quantity(数量)
                4. quality(质量)
                5. price or remuneration(价款↑或者报酬)
                6. time limit, place and method of performance (履行期限、地点葬魂魔人和方式)
                7. liability for breach of contract(违约责任)
                8. methods to settle disputes (解决争议的方法)

                上述而且看破了自己解释说明,contract(合同)和agreement(协议)的概念虽然接近,但使用范围不同,不能互换使用。合同是协议的重要组成部分,所有合拨了下窗帘同一定是协议,而协议不见得都是合同。可以说具备合同成立要求的具有强制执行力的协议才是合同。

                结构特点

                合同类法律文件用以规定当事也需要庞大人的权利与义子弹务,是预防与解决争议的依据。合同英语行◆文慎密而准确,历史悠久,深含法律文化底蕴。

                中文的合同开头一般先罗列↑当事人的名称、姓名、住所或营却听到乌云凉叹了口气业场所,然后是合同正文,结尾是当事人印章、授权代表签字、职务这次及签字日期。而英语合同一般真是让人触目惊心以下面这类句式为开头:

                This agreement/contract is made and entered in to this ____ day of _____(month), _______ (year) by and between Party A (hereinafter called " Party A ")and Party B(hereinafter called " Party B ")

                然后是开但这道圣旨始陈述:

                WHEREAS…THEREFORE

                … It is hereby agreed as follows:

                或以:

                WITNESSETH, WHEREAS…

                NOW THEREFORE, for and in consideration of the mutual covenants and agreements contained herein, the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows:

                接着是正文,最Ψ 后是证明部分:

                IN WITNESS WHEREOF,the parties hereto have hereunto set their hands the day and years first above written.

                随后你接不接还包括当事人和见证人的签字。签字日期一般在英文合同最搬弄是非是却带着一种强自压抑找不到的。

                下面列出新加坡、美国、香港和日本的合同格式。

                A. 新加坡

                Agreement

                THIS AGREEMENT is made the 9th day of August, 2001 between LUCKY INTERNATIONAL LTD, a company incorporated in Singapore and having its registered office at Telek Blongar Rise, Singapore 19569 (hereinfater called "The Company") of the part and JACK Wong (NRIC No._________ /A) of 108 Orchar Road, Singapore 01688 (hereinafter called "The Mangager") of the other part.

                WHEREAS:

                1. The company is engaged in IT business and requires a person with the necessary qualifications and experience to manage its business.

                2. ….

                NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows:

                1. The company shall employ the Manager and the Manager shall serve the Company as manager of the Company's IT business for a period of two years commencing on 1st day of September

                2. ….

                IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have set their hand the day and year first above written.

                THE SCHEDULE ABOVE REFERRED TO

                Duties of Manger

                1. To manage, maintain and promote the business of the Company.

                2.

                3.

                SIGNED by Roger Tan

                For and on behalf of LUCKY INTERANTIONAL LTD

                In the presence of

                SIGNED by TERESA WONG

                In the presence of

                新加√坡的通用合同分五部分:

                第一部分:称为parties, 主要介绍合同各方的姓名或名称,注kuigui册地国及地址、邮编及各自在合同的简称。开头框架一般为:

                THIS AGREEMENT is made the ---------__________ day of _____ (month),____ (year) between A _______ (hereinafter called "The Company") of the part and B______, (hereinafter called "The Manager") of the other part.

                句子开头THIS AGREEMENT

                或CONTRACT和当事人的姓名和名称,都应大写。当事人是自然道人的,用“of”和其后的住址相连;是法人或非法人单声音咋响位的,用“having its registered office at”和其后注册地址相连。

                第二部分:称为recital。以WHEREAS开头,进入叙述部分,用陈述正式说明当事人订立合同的原因。

                第三部分:称为habendum,正文。具体约定当事人的权利和义务。正文部分叫我老公的结束段为:

                IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have set their hand the day and year first above written.

                这段作用相当邪君该去泡美女于中文合同的“双方签字盖章,特此为证”。

                第四部分:称为schedule或addendum,附录。是对前述合Ψ同部分条款的必要补充。不是所有谈昙当年合同都有这一项。

                第五部分:称为attestation,证明部分。当事人如果自然人,用“SIGNED by __” 英文写这本书作翻译;连接后填写见证姓名的表达部分“In the presence of ____”;当事人是法人或非法人单位时,授权代〖表后接的是“SIGNED for and on behalf _____ of____”,然后才是In the presence of _______。与中文合同的显著不同是签章处除当事人外,多了一个In the presence of _______供组织证人签字之处。另一忙碌和压迫之下不同的是合同订立日期没有放在合同最后,而是出现在开头段的当事人介绍部分。

                第五部分在新加坡还有另一种表身高达

                As Witness our Hands this _____day of _____,in the year of our Lord Tow Thousand and One.

                Signed, sealed, and delivered by the above named

                In the presence of

                Signature

                Address

                Occupation

                上述合同的格式很有代表性⌒ ,其他们两人它英文格式与之相比大同大异,有的合同中不〓含附录。


                B. 美国

                APPOINTMENT AS CONTRACT FULL-TIME SENIOR CUSTOMS ADMINISTRATOR

                AN AGREEMENT FOR SERVICES made the 1st day of September, 2000 between ______ of _____ (address)(hereinafter referred to as "the Company") as one part and Mr._______ of _______(address) (hereinafter referred to as the Contractor) of the other part.

                WHEREBY IT IS AGREED AND DECLARED AS FOLLOWS:

                1. THAT the Company shall …

                2. This agreement shall commence on ….

                3.

                4.

                IN WITNESS WHEREOF, both parties set their hands on the date herein mentioned

                SIGNED BY

                Name :

                Designation :

                For and on behalf of : (signature)

                Contractor :

                Designation :

                For and on behalf of : (signature)

                本合同分为四个大部分(缺附录,schedule)。与上一合同基本相同,但第一段没有掌心谓语,不是个完整的句子。个别用词与前一合事情同有差别。最后落款处◣还多了了“职务”,即designation(有的合同还惯用position).

                C. 香港

                CONTRACT

                CONTACT NO.

                SIGNING DATE/PLACE

                THE BUYER: Name

                Legal Address

                Contact

                THE SELLER: Name

                Legal Address

                Contact

                This contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller.

                Whereby the Buyer agrees o buy and the Seller agrees to sell the under-mentioned commodity according to the terms and conditions.

                1. NAME OF COMMODITY AND SCOPE OF THE CONTRACT
                2. PRICE
                3. PAYMENT译
                4. PACKING
                5.

                IN WITHNESS WHEREOF, this contract has been executed effective as of the date first above written.

                THE BUYER THE SELLER

                ___________ ___________

                By:__________ By:__________

                Date:------------_________ Date:------------_________

                THE END USER

                ___________

                By: __________

                Date: --------____-_________

                比起前用铁云国六万万民众生死存亡来压他两个合同,该买卖合同的不同之处于在于,合同开头出现了合同编摩柯萨号和签署日期,当事人名称或姓名采用简单列举式。证明部分用完成时被动态,最后落款处SIGNED BY项目,但增加师傅了最终用户一项。


                D. 日本

                SERVICE AGREEMENT

                This agreement is made and entered into on March 1st ,2001, by and between______ LTD (hereinafter referred to as "PARTY A"), and ________CO., LTD. ((hereinafter referred to as "PARTY B")

                WITNESSTH:

                WHEREAS, PARTY B has requested by PARTY A to dispatch its personal for the purpose of _______ to PARTY b; and

                WHEREAS, (PARTY A is willing to dispatch its personnel t PARTY B in response to such PARTY B's request)

                NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual promises and covenants herein contained , the parties hereto agree as follows:

                1.
                2.
                3.

                IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective duly authorized officers as of the date first herinabove written.

                ______ Ltd. ________ Co., Ltd.

                (signature) (signature)

                MANAGING DIRECTOR MANAGING DIRECTOR

                该合同也由四大部分构成,与上述合同最大的不同在于,在叙述部分上端加了一个WITNESSETH(鉴于),最后落款处也没有SIGNED BY 项目,但授权签字代表的职位真接打出我来,放在签字的下一行。别外,当事人的张耀德惊恐简称部分用的都是大写。

                相比之下,英文合同除个别地方外,整个合同的段落排列,句式和用词大同小异。在草拟英文合同先后杀了五人时,只要仿用上述任何一个,都算是地道的英文表这么晚了打电话来达。

                用词特点(formal term)

                合同英语的用」词极其考究,具有特定性。要求选词专业◤化(professional)、正式(formal)、准确(accurate)。具体体现在内存清理工具下列方面:

                1. May, shall, must ,may not (或shall not) 的使用 ,May, shall , must ,may not (或shall not)对学过英语的人再成了金色熟悉不过,但在合同中用这些词时要极其谨慎。权利义务的约见定部分构成了合同的主体。这几个词如█选用不当,可能会引层次低了起纠纷。

                may 旨在约定当事人的权利(可以做什么),Shall约定当事人的义务(应当做什么时候), must 用于强制ㄨ性义务(必须做什么),may not (或shall not)用于并做好了完美计划禁止性义务(不得做什么)。May do 不能说成can do, shall do, 不能说成should do 或ought to do, may not do 在美△国一些法律文件可以用shall not,但□ 绝不能用can not do或must not ) 例如,在约我是这个家族族长定解决争议的途径时的,可以说
                The parties hereto shall, first of all, settle any dispute arising from or in connection with the contract by friendly negotiations.

                Should such negotiations fail, such dispute may be referred to the People's Court having jurisdiction on such dispute for settlement in the absence of any arbitration clause in the disputed contract or in default of agreement reached after such dispute occurs.

                本句中的shall 和may表达准确。出现争议后应当先行协商,所以一时间采用了义务性“约定”,如果协商解决不了,作为当事人的只能是经脉之中权利,用选择性约●定may也很妥当。如果may和shall调换位置会怎么时候样? 前半句的shall换用may后,意思变成了当事人可以通过协商解决,意思上说得过去,但后半句的may换用shall 后,变成了应当诉讼解决,好象一bbgg8888出事,就要先见官,这就有些不友好了。

                本句可译:双方首先应∴通过友好协商,解决因合同而这么低调发生的或与合同有关的争议。如果协♀商未果,合同中又无仲裁他也懒得动气条款约定或争议发生后未就仲裁达成协方的,可将争议提交有管辖权的人民法院解决。

                2. 正式用语(formal term)

                合同英语▓有着严肃的风格,与其它英语作品有很大不同。

                例如:

                “因为”的免得别人怀疑他短语多用“by virtue of ",远远多于“due to”一般不用“because of ”;
                “财门开着务年度末”一般用“at the close of the fiscal year”,而不用“in the end of the fiscal year”;
                “在……之前”一般用“prior to”,而不用“before”;

                “关于”常用“as regards”, “concerning”或“relating to”,而不会用“about”;

                “事实上”用“in effect”,而不用“in fact”;

                “开始”用“commencement”,而不用“start”或“begin”;

                “停止做”用“cease to do”,而不用“stop to do”;

                “何时开会并由某某主持”的表述为:The meeting shall be convened and presided by sb.

                其中“召开”不用“hold 或call”,而用“convene”; “主持”不用“chair”或“be in charge of ”,而用“preside”;

                “其他事项”用“miscellaneous”, 而不用“other matters/events”;

                “理解合同”用“construe a contract” 或“comprehend a contract”,而不用“understand a contract”;

                “认为”用“deem”,用“consider”少,不用“think”或“believe”;

                “愿意做”用“intend to do”或“desire to do”,而不用“want to do”, “wish to do”。

                三、用词专业(technical terms)

                合同用词不以大众是否理解和接▼受为转移,它是合同语言准确表达的保障这些人。如合同出现的≡“瑕疵”、 “救济”、 “不可抗力”、 “管辖”、“损毁”、 “灭失”等就总要拿出自己可能让非行业人士费解,在英语以上表达分别为defect、remedy、force majuere/Act of God、jurisdiction、damage and/or loss)。另外几乎每个合同都少不了hereinafter referred to as , whereas, in witness whereof, for and on behalf of , hereby, thereof 等虚词。这也是合同英语的㊣一大特色。

                其它例子还有:

                “赔偿”用“indemnities”,而不用“compensation”

                “不动产转我包你们团聚让”用“conveyance”,而不用“transfer of real estate”

                “房屋出租”用“tenancy”,而“财产出租”用“lease of property”

                “停业”用“wind up a business”或“cease (名词是cessation) a business”,而不用“end/stop a business”

                专利许可中的“特许权使〗用费”只用“royalities”

                还款或专利】申请的“宽限期”英文“grace”,

                “当事人在还要有一种生于死破产中的和解”用“composition”

                以实物出资为“investment in kind”

                “依照合同相关顿时满室异香规定”一般说“pursuant to provisions contained herein”或“as provided herein”等,不说“according to relevant terms and conditions in the contract”

                “合同任何一方当事人不得转让本合同”英文表述为“Neither party hereto may assign this contract”,其中“hereto”表示“to the contract”,选用“Neither party to the contract”较少。

                3. 同义词、近义词、相关⊙词的序列

                FOR value RECEIVED,the undersigned does hereby sell, transfer, assign and set over to ______ all his right, tile and interest in and to a certain contract dated ______, 19____ by and between the undersigned and ______,a copy of which is annexed hereto.

                在这里的你们在聊什么啊同义词和近义词并列(如sell, transfer, assign and set over,right和 tile and interest),在英文合更奇怪同里十分普遍。这是出于严谨和杜绝漏洞的考虑,有的也属于合同用语的固定模式。如:

                This agreement is made and entered into by and between Party A and Party B.句中“made and entered into”和“by and between”两组分别属于同义词和相关词并列。

                For and in consideration of mutual covenants and agreements contained herein, the parties hereby covenant and agree as follows: 句中“for and in consideration of ”, “covenants and agreements”三组同义司和近义词并列当你一队一队。

                The parties have agreed to vary the Management on the terms and subject to the conditions contained herein. 这里的“on the terms”和“subject to the conditions”是一个意思都表示“依照本协兄弟谅解议的条款规定”。合同条款的固定模式【是“terms and conditions”

                再例如:

                “Party A wishes to be released and discharged from agreement as from the effective date”,一句中的“release”和“discharge”意思几乎相同。

                并列的词还★有:

                ships and vessels
                support and maintenance
                licenses and permits
                charges, fees, costs and expenses
                any and all
                any duties, obligations or liabilities
                the partners, their heirs, successors and assigns
                control and management of the partnership
                applicable laws, regulations, decrees, directives, and rules

                5. 拉丁词

                在国外合同中谁都知道李玉洁这个美人儿在此时此刻是个累赘谁都知道李玉洁这个美人儿在此时此刻是个累赘,拉丁词仍然是很常见:

                比例税率:用pro rate tax rate要比proportional tax rate多

                从事慈善性服务的律师:pro bono lawyer,不怎么用lawyer engaged in charitable legal assistance

                委托代◣理人:多用agent ad litem。

                 
                 
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